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Home Studies Cambodia

 Cambodia

GIS-based G&G Database and Report

Cambodia 01

Format:
GIS G&G Project and A3 Hard Copy Report

Description:
A GIS-based G&G Regional Database for Cambodia, including offshore (Khmer and Pattani Troughs) and onshore Tonle Sap area, and hard copy report providing a petroleum systems evaluation.

The ‘GIS G&G Regional Project’ contains multiple interpretational layers and G&G datasets, as detailed above. In addition to this, the project database contains:

  • Hyperlinked images of seismic, interpreted seismic and cross sections that illustrate overall basin/rift geometry, the relationship of essential play elements and key discoveries.
  • Major gravity and magnetically defined tectonic lineaments and splays, and predicted zones of extension through the Tonle Sap and surrounding areas.
  • Onshore oil and gas seeps.
  • Tectonostratigraphic framework for both offshore and onshore areas.
  • Landsat images.
  • SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) 30m Data.

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A petroleum systems evaluation of the Cambodian basins has been undertaken. This is an in-depth basin/block evaluation constrained by seismic, well, gravity, geochemical, heat flow and other complimentary datasets, as a means of defining the exploration potential of the pre-, syn- and post-rift sections of the basins in the Gulf of Thailand and the onshore Tonle Sap Basin. The findings of this investigation have been used to rank the blocks of interest in terms of hydrocarbon potential and predicted exploration risk and uncertainty.

The following basins have been evaluated during the course of the study: Pattani; Khmer Trough; and Tonle Sap. JMJ Petroleum has considerable knowledge of these basins, having undertaken several major proprietary (exclusive) studies using a variety of G&G datasets, including extensive seismic, gravity, magnetics and well data.


The tectonostratigraphy of each basin has been assessed and documented in terms of megasequences, which are portrayed through tectonostratigraphic summary charts. The tectonics and structural development of each basin have been reviewed in terms of both important regional and local events that are expressed through seismic and well data. The resultant tectonostratigraphic template for each basin has been used to evaluate present day heat flow and, in turn, to construct a variable heat flow model for burial history modelling purposes for all key source rock intervals.


Potential field data (gravity and magnetics) have been used, in conjunction with seismic and wells that penetrate basement, to map important basement compositional changes and major deep crustal lineaments and fracture systems. A set of 2D gravity model profiles that extend E-W across the Khmer and Pattani Trough basins have been generated to validate the compositional changes within the basement and to determine the extent and geometry of individual basins/rift systems. Onshore, gravity and magnetics data have been used to determine depth to basement estimates as a means of locating the main depocentres of the Tonle Sap Basin system, and its overall rift configuration, with the identification of several major controlling transcurrent structures.


An investigation of the distribution and quality of both proven and potential source rocks in the Khmer and Pattani Troughs has been undertaken as a means of determining the spatial and temporal distribution of source families and their accumulation environments, with respect to modern-day analogues. This is provided as a summary of predicted hydrocarbon types – fluvio-deltaic, fluvio-lacustrine, and saline-lacustrine facies – and general observations have been made in relation to the geochemical characteristics of “Rift” and “Sag” phase source rocks and sourced oils. This information, together with the heat flow model, has been used in the generation of a set of burial/maturation history models, which includes both wells and optimally positioned pseudowells. Modelled wells utilised to verify the heat flow models, together with observed Vitrinite Reflectance data, are provided; in addition to all burial/maturation models for both wells and pseudowells, showing transformation ratios, timing of maximum hydrocarbon expulsion and the amount of predicted expelled hydrocarbons and residual potential. Lower (Megasequences 1 and 2 (Type I, lacustrine, oil-prone), and 3 (Type III, fluvio-lacustrine, gas-prone)) and Upper (Megasequences 3 and 4 (Type III, predominantly terrestrial, gas-prone) potential source rocks have been modelled. All the models are presented in full and the results have been summarised in terms of depth of maximum expulsion and timing.


An integral part of this study has been to generate a Base Tertiary Map for the offshore Cambodian basins constrained by seismic, well, magnetics and gravity data, and public domain sources, including depth converted TWT maps and georeferenced interpreted seismic profiles. Existing data/information has been screened to identify and preferentially select key elements that can be used and integrated into the GIS-based coverage.


By integrating the results of the burial/maturation history modelling with the Base Tertiary Map, expulsion windows for Top Oil (0.8% Ro), Top Gas (1.0% Ro) and Top Main Gas (1.2% Ro) have been generated for present day. This, together with known hydrocarbon occurrences (producing and non-producing discoveries) and mapped prospects and leads, provides a powerful exploration tool for assessing hydrocarbon potential in different parts of offshore Cambodia.


All proven and potential plays have been documented and assessed in terms of their foreseen hydrocarbon potential. Key risks and uncertainties associated with these plays are also highlighted. This information is visually portrayed through a set of "Exploration Opportunity Summary Montages‟, which show the spatial and temporal relationship of the essential play elements (e.g., source, reservoir and seal) through a set of seismically-based play cartoons and cross sections.


All mapped interpretational elements and underlying datasets are contained within the GIS project. The A3 hard copy report contains over 200 colour pages.